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Villages, Women, and the Success of Dairy Cooperatives in India: Making Place for Rur ...

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Villages, Women, and the Success of Dairy Cooperatives in India:

Table of Contents

List of Figures

xi

List of Tables

xiii

Acknowledgments

xv

Chapter 1: Introduction: Seeking Success, Finding Farmers

1

Questions for Cooperative Dairying

3

Development, Villages, Identities

7

Beyond Success and Failure

8

Constructing the Village

16

Small Farmers and Agrarian Politics

22

Gender and Rural Development

27

Comparisons and Stories

31

Two Kinds of Success

31

Space and Place

35

Comparisons and Case Studies

36

Subjects of Storytelling

40

Outline of the Chapters

43

Chapter 2: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories of Dairy Development

49

Act 1: Colonial Connections

50

Constructing the Patidar Caste

51

Patidars and Peasant Politics

56

Act 2: Dairy Development

58

Politics and Technology in Anand's Cooperatives

59

Cooperative Dairying as a National Model

61

International Funding for the Replication of Cooperatives

65

Act 3: Liberalization

72

Cooperative Dairying Beyond the World Bank

75

Chapter 3: Traces of Traveling Villages: Linking Spatial and Social Arrangements

77

Migrations and Mahdol: Between the Fields and the Town

78

Spatial Divisions and Social Identities

79

At the Urban-Rural Boundary

83

Land Reforms

85

Marriage Circles

87

Religious Differences

87

Farmers and Fisherpeople in Saundara: Agricultural Land and the River

91

Spatial Divisions and Social Identities

92

A Flood and the Patidar-Rajput Alliance

99

Questioning the New Village

102

An Adivasi Sarpanch

103

Preparing Ground for Dairy Development

105

Chapter 4: Local Struggles Over Dairy Cooperatives: Political and Economic Meanings

107

The Value of Mahdol's Dairy Cooperative

109

Against Private Traders

111

Conflicts Between Patels

113

Networks Beyond the Village

116

Saksham (Capable) Farmers of Saundara

117

The Uncertainty of Local Markets for Milk

118

Dairying Knowledge and Political Skills

122

Village Cooperatives in Wider Agrarian Politics

125

Local Politics of Participation in Cooperative Dairying

127

Chapter 5: From Crossbred Cows to Cash: Management of Milk Flows

129

Debating Crossbred Cows

130

National Policies on Indigenous and European Breeds

130

Supporting Crossbred Cows in Mahdol

134

Refusing Crossbred Cows in Saundara

137

Timings and Technologies

141

Cooperative and Agricultural Rhythms

141

Measuring Milk

142

Transporting Milk

145

The Many Meanings of Profit

148

Regularity of Payments in Mahdol

148

Links with Agriculture in Saundara

152

Local Consumption of Milk

154

Alternative Models of Dairying

157

Nomadic Herders Around Mahdol

157

Goat Ownership in Saundara

159

Flows of Milk and Power

161

Chapter 6: Mixing Dairying and Agriculture: Irrigated Land and Draft Animals

165

Agricultural Resources and Cooperative Membership

166

Land and Membership in Mahdol

168

Mahdol's Irrigation Cooperative

170

Land, Irrigation, and Membership in Saundara

173

Importance of Bullocks

175

Diversification of Livelihoods

177

Saundara's Sand Quarrying Cooperatives

179

Cooperative Dairying as Mixed Farming

182

Chapter 7: Between Homes and Fields: The Diversity of Women's Work

185

Official and Critical Perspectives on Women and Dairy Development

187

Dairying Work and the Household Economy

189

Limited Options for Women's Development

193

Resemblance to Waged Employment: Women's Work in Mahdol

196

Preference for Agriculture: Women's Work in Saundara

202

Limits of Women's Participation

211

Management and Members in Mahdol

212

Farmers and Laborers in Saundara

214

Gender Bases of Dairy Development

218

Chapter 8: Conclusion: Rethinking Successful Development

221

Politics of Successful Development: Reasserting Village Spaces and Identities

222

Significance of Small Farmers: Linking Agriculture and Dairying

224

Successful Development as Women's Work

226

The Future of Cooperative Dairying

227

Notes

229

References

241

Index

261