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Post-Apartheid South Africa: Economic and Social Inclusion By Vusi Gumede ...

Chapter 1:  Introduction
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Post-Apartheid South Africa:

Chapter 1


We, the African people in the Union of South Africa, urgently demand the granting of full citizenship rights such as are enjoyed by all Europeans in South Africa.

Bill of Rights, Africans’ Claims in South Africa 1943


The year 1994 was momentous for South Africa, and Africa in general. It dramatically marked the formal end of a repugnant system of oppression by the white minority over the African majority. South Africa was the sole country on the African continent that did not have political independence; the wave of political liberation of the 1960s and 1970s that swept across the African continent never reached South Africa. Africans in South Africa have had to endure about 350 years of white domination. In this book, Africans are those that have endured the historical experience of colonialism and other forms of enslavement.1

Between 1910 and 1994, the Boers2 and British meted extreme forms of enslavement and oppression on blacks. The year 1948 marks the beginning of one of the most discriminatory systems ever conceived. When the