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Deglobalization and International Security By T. X. Hammes

Chapter 1:  Key Trends Driving Deglobalization
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Deglobalization and International Security

Chapter 1

Key Trends Driving Deglobalization

The Financial Times defines globalization as “a process by which national and regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through the global network of trade, communication, immigration and transportation.”1 The World Economic Forum defines it as “the integration of markets, trade and investments with few barriers to slow the flow of products and services between nations. There is also a cultural element, as ideas and traditions are traded and assimilated.”2 The Economist defines globalization as the “global integration of the movement of goods, capital and jobs.”3 The key elements of all these definitions are economic. Thus, the definition of globalization I will use for this book is the global integration of trade, services, investments, and ideas enhanced by the free movement of people.

For decades, the combination of labor cost advantages, increasingly efficient freight systems, low-cost digital communications, and trade agreements have fueled globalization by providing national competitive advantages for manufacturing and services. It has transformed agricultural