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Deglobalization and International Security By T. X. Hammes

Chapter 1:  Key Trends Driving Deglobalization
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Deglobalization and International Security

societies into industrial powerhouses. Yet this is not the first wave of globalization.

Parag Khanna’s Connectography stated globalization began in the third millennium BCE, when the Mesopotamian empires started trading with each other, Egypt, and Persia. Khanna expands the definition of globalization to include global supply chains, energy markets, industrial production, and flows of finance, technology, knowledge, and talent, stating that “the advance of global network civilization is the surest bet one could have made over the past five thousand years.”4

In the long run, this has been true. However, Khanna fails to note that each expansion of globalization ended, often with a severe contraction. Some contractions, like the misnamed Dark Ages, lasted for centuries. Others, like the collapse of trade caused by World War I, lasted decades. Increasing connectivity between regions has not been a one-way phenomenon. It has repeatedly been subject to long periods of deglobalization where the key elements of globalization—the movement of goods, services, investments, people, and ideas—have declined.

The World Trade Organization (WTO) focuses on modern globalization and marks its beginning as the start of the Industrial Revolution.

The immense technological advances in transportation and communications that it unleashed—from steamships, railroad and telegraphs to automobiles, aeroplanes and the internet—steadily reduced the cost of moving goods, capital, technology, and people around the globe.5

Further, the WTO divides it into two “ages of globalization.” The first age stretched from the start of the Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s until World War I. During this period, the convergence of technologies created cost advantages for those nations that could also master the advances in production, transportation, finance, and communication. These advances were reinforced by a political and social environment among the developed nations that pushed hard to expand trade as a way