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Programmed Instruction in Online Learning By Reinaldo L. Canton

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Programmed Instruction in Online Learning

Introduction

“I believe that consciousness is essentially motor or impulsive; that conscious states tend to project themselves in action.” This excerpt from philosopher and educational theorist John Dewey's “My Pedagogic Creed” (Dewey, 1897) was later expounded upon in what could arguably be his most important work in the field of educational theory (Dewey, 1916). In “Democracy and Education,” his assertion was straightforward. Students learn by doing. Empirical support for this assertion, in the context of active response during instruction, has been afforded by substantial and mounting research in education and behavior. Using both group-comparison and single-participant experimental approaches, researchers have come to the same conclusion: Learning is enhanced when the frequency with which students actively respond during instruction is increased (Bostow, Kritch, & Tompkins, 1995; Cronbach & Snow, 1977; Gropper, 1987; Kritch & Bostow, 1998; Kritch, Bostow, & Dedrick, 1995; Lunts, 2002; Rabinowitz & Craik, 1986; Rickards & August, 1975; Skinner, 1950, pp. 68-72; Thomas & Bostow, 1991; Tudor, 1995; Tudor & Bostow, 1991; Williams, 1996). In programmed