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Modern Poetry in China: A Visual-Verbal Dynamic By Paul Manfredi

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Modern Poetry in China:
available tend to treat moments in the cultural-historical record, such as Zhang Xudong’s (1997) work on the 1980s or Shih Shu-mei’s (2001) and Leo Lee’s (1999) studies of the 1930s. The closest to targeted analysis of modernism as a movement in Chinese poetry comes from Gregory Lee (1989) in his study of Dai Wangshu, though a book form of Liang Bingjun’s University of San Diego dissertation would have been a landmark in the field. Overviews that include substantial description of modernism as well as other movements in Chinese poetry are Michelle Yeh’s (1991a) Modern Chinese Poetry: Theory and Practice since 1917 and (1992) Anthology, particularly introduction pages xxx-xliv. ). Chinese-language scholarship is ample, though, beginning again with Michelle Yeh (1998) Xiandang dai shiwen lu (pp 13–24, 155–180, and 203–227. There are as well a number of book-length works including Lü Zhouju 呂周聚 (2001), Xiandai zhuyi shixue 現代主義詩學 (Chinese modernist poetics); Wang Jianzhao 汪劍釗 (2006), Ershi shiji zhongguo xiandai zhuyi shige 二十世紀中國現代主義詩歌 (Twentieth-century modernist poetry in China), mostly chapter 3; Luo Zhenya 羅振亞 (2001), Zhongguo xiandai zhuyi shige shilun 中國現代主義史論 (Historical discussion of modernist poetry in China), again chapter 3; and Wu Zhongcheng 吳忠誠 (1999), Xiandaipai shige jingshen yu fangfa 現代派精神與方法 (On the spirit and method of Chinese modernist poetry). None of these specifically treats visuality in the context of modernism.
7. It is worth noting that classical Chinese poetry has survived and indeed continues to thrive into the present day, it is still read and loved by Chinese people the world over, and yet it is not a part of my study. Tian Xiaofei (2006) addressed this question, among others, in “The Reinvention of Chinese Poetry in the Twentieth Century,” 189–204.
8. The most obvious instance is perhaps scapulimancy, a system of divination by which patterns of meaning are read from the bones of animals.
9. In Confucian terminology, the word is ren 仁, which appears in most translations as “benevolence,” and is at least anecdotally pictographic. With human radical on the left and the number two on the right, the word refers to the behavior of people when they are acting in full awareness (presence) of others.
10. The tihuashi were poems that either literally take visual art as their subject or appear literally on the paintings (or fans), and in some cases both. See Daan Pan, The Lyrical Resonance Between Chinese Poets and Painters: The Tradition and Poetics of Tihuashi (2010).