Untangling the Web of Hate: Are Online “Hate Sites” Deserving of First Amendment Protection?

by Brett A. Barnett

Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter One: Introduction


Chapter Two: Background

The Evolution of U.S.-Based Hate Sites

The 1990s: Internet Speech and Hate Speech at Issue

Internet Speech: Communication Research and Legal Research Intersect

Internet Hate Speech: Communication Research and Legal Research Diverge

Literature Review

Summary of Literature Review


Chapter Three: Research Questions and Methodology

Research Questions

Methodology

Legal Analysis

Research Artifacts and Procedures

Content Analysis

Definitions

Population of Hate Sites

Sampling Procedure

Research Artifacts

Significance


Chapter Four: Standards for Regulating Hateful Speech in Non-Internet Settings

Supreme Court First Amendment Tests

"Clear and Present Danger" Test

"Bad Tendency" Test

"Fighting Words" Test

"Group Defamation" Test

"Imminent Lawless Action" Test

"True Threats" Test

Summary


Chapter Five: Standards for Regulating Content Posted on the Internet

Federal Court-Adopted Tests for Internet Content

"True Threats" Tests Prior to Virginia v. Black

The "Miller Test"

Summary


Chapter Six: Applicability of Standards for Regulating Hateful Speech in Non-Internet

Settings to Hate Speech Posted Online

First Amendment Tests for Hateful Speech That Are Inapplicable to Hate Sites

"Fighting Words" Test

"Group Defamation" Test

"Imminent Lawless Action" Test

First Amendment Tests for Hateful Speech That Are Applicable to Hate Sites

"Clear and Present Danger" Test

"Bad Tendency" Test

"True Threats" Test

Summary


Chapter Seven: Themes That Appear on Internet Hate Sites

Ku Klux Klan

American White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (AWKKKK)

Mississippi White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (MWKKKK)

Neo-Nazi

National Socialist Movement (NSM)

Racist Skinhead

Tualatin Valley Skins (TVS)

Christian Identity

Orange County Assembly of Christ (OCAC)

Black Separatist

Nation of Islam (NOI)

New Black Panther Party (NBPP)

Neo-Confederate

League of the South (LOS)

Other Hate Groups

Council of Conservative Citizens (CCC)

Jewish Defense League (JDL)

Summary


Chapter Eight: Targets of Hatred on Internet Hate Sites

Ku Klux Klan

American White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (AWKKKK)

Mississippi White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (MWKKKK)

Neo-Nazi

National Socialist Movement (NSM)

Racist Skinhead

Tualatin Valley Skins (TVS)

Christian Identity

Orange County Assembly of Christ (OCAC)

Black Separatist

Nation of Islam (NOI)

New Black Panther Party (NBPP)

Neo-Confederate

League of the South (LOS)

Other Hate Groups

Council of Conservative Citizens (CCC)

Jewish Defense League (JDL)

Summary


Chapter Nine: Nontextual Content Posted on Internet Hate Sites

Ku Klux Klan Nontextual Internet Content

American White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (AWKKKK)

Mississippi White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (MWKKKK)

Neo-Nazi

National Socialist Movement (NSM)

Racist Skinhead

Tualatin Valley Skins (TVS)

Christian Identity

Orange County Assembly of Christ (OCAC)

Black Separatist

Nation of Islam (NOI)

New Black Panther Party (NBPP)

Neo-Confederate

League of the South (LOS)

Other Hate Groups

Council of Conservative Citizens (CCC)

Jewish Defense League (JDL)

Summary


Chapter Ten: Findings

The "Miller Test" for Obscenity

The Black Court's "True Threats" Test

"Clear and Present Danger" and "Bad Tendency" Tests

Summary


Chapter Eleven: Summary and Conclusions


References

Index


 

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