Watermarking in Audio: Key Techniques and Technologies

by Xing He

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables


Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Motivation and Goals

1.2 Watermark Applications

a. Broadcast Monitoring

b. Owner Identification

c. Proof of Ownership

d. Transaction Tracking

e. Content Authentication

f. Copy Control

g. Device Control

1.3 Elements of a Watermarking System

1.4 Organization of the Book

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Properties of the Human Auditory System

2.1.1 Absolute Threshold of Hearing

2.1.2 Critical Bands

2.1.3 The Masking Phenomena

2.2 Selected Watermarking Techniques

2.2.1 Echo Coding/Hiding

2.2.2 Phase Coding

2.2.3 Spread Spectrum

Chapter 3: A Psychoacoustic Model Based on the Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Wavelet Transform Analysis

3.3 An Improved Wavelet-Based Psychoacoustic Model

3.3.1 Signal Decomposition With the Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform (DWPT)

3.3.2 Wavelet Decomposition Evaluation

3.3.3 Window Size Switching and Temporal Masking

3.4 Experimental Procedures and Results

3.4.1 Masking of the Power Spectrum

3.4.2 Signal-to-Masking Ratio Reduction

3.5 Conclusion

Chapter 4: A High Quality Audio Coder Using Proposed Psychoacoustic Model

4.1. Structure of Proposed Perceptual Audio Coder

4.2 Quantization and Huffman Coding

4.3 Evaluation of Proposed Audio Coder

4.3.1 Test Audio

4.3.2 Subjective Listening Tests

4.4 Conclusion

Chapter 5: An Improved Spread Spectrum Digital Audio Watermarking Scheme Based on a Psychoacoustic Model Using Wavelet Packet Transform Algorithms

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Watermark Design, Insertion and Detection

5.2.1 The Synchronization Process

5.2.2 2-D Array Interleaving and Watermark Generation

5.2.3 Watermark Generation and Embedding

5.2.4 Watermark Extraction

5.3 Experimental Procedures and Results

5.3.1 System Robustness Test

5.3.2 Watermarking Systems Comparison

5.3.3 Watermark Robustness Comparison

5.3.4 Watermark Payload Comparison

5.3.5 Watermark Length Comparison

5.4 Conclusion

Chapter 6: Further Improvements of the Watermarking Scheme

6.1 Diagram of Proposed Enhanced Watermark System

6.2 Encoder of the Proposed Enhanced Watermark System

6.3 Decoder of Proposed Enhanced Watermark System

6.4 Discussion About the Savitzky-Golay Smoothing Filter

6.5 Evaluation of the Proposed Enhanced Watermark System

6.6 More Watermarking Systems Comparison

6.6.1 Watermark Robustness Comparison

6.6.2 Watermark Payload Comparison

6.6.3 Watermark Length Comparison

6.7 Conclusion

Chapter 7: A Fast and Precise Synchronization Method for Digital Audio Watermarking

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Synchronization Problem in Watermarking and Traditional Solutions

7.2.1 Synchronization Problem in Audio Watermarking

7.2.2 Overview of Traditional Solutions

7.3 A Fast and Efficient Synchronization Method

7.3.1 Feature Points Extraction

7.3.2 PN Sequence Scrambling and Multiple PN Sequences Embedding

7.3.3 Matched Filter Detection

7.4 Experimental Results

7.4.1 Robustness of High Energy Distribution

7.4.2 Single Watermarking Synchronization

7.4.3 Multiple Watermarking Synchronization

7.4.4 Multiple Watermarking Synchronization Under Time Scaling Attack

7.5 Conclusion

Chapter 8: Conclusion and Future Trends

8.1 Conclusion of the Book

8.2 Future Trends

8.2.1 Psychoacoustic Modeling

8.2.2 Improved Synchronization




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