Peace Agreements and Civil Wars in Africa: Insurgent Motivations, State Responses, and Third Party Peacemaking in Liberia, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone

by Julius Mutwol

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Conflict Resolution Theory and Peace Accords

Defining Success and Failure in Peace Agreements

Frameworks and Hypotheses

Third Parties in Civil War Agreements

Conflict Dynamics

External Interveners and Peace Agreements

Chapter 2: Standing Mediation Committee (SMC) Phase

Background to the Civil War

Outbreak of the Civil War

Government Response to the Invasion

Beginning of Conflict Mediation

ECOWAS Decides to Intervene Militarily

Banjul I Ceasefire, October 1990

The Bamako Accord, November 1990

Banjul II Accord, December 1990

The Lome Accord, February 1991

The All-Liberian Conference, April 1991

Chapter 3: Yamoussoukro Phase, June 1991–October 1992

Ripening of the Conflict

The Yamoussoukro I Accord, June 1991

The Yamoussoukro II Accord, July 1991

The Yamoussoukro III Accord, September 1991

The Yamoussoukro IV Accord, 30 October 1991

Explaining the Signing of Yamoussoukro IV Accord

Why Yamoussoukro IV Failed

Geneva “Clarification”, April 1992

Chapter 4: Cotonou, Akosombo, and Accra Accords, July 1993–December 1994

From Stalemate to Negotiations, October 1992-July 1993

Consequences of ECOMOG Peace Enforcement

International Pressure for Negotiations

The Cotonou Accord, 25 July 1993

Implementation of the Accord

The Akosombo Peace Accord, 12 September 1994

The Accra Peace Accord, 21 December 1994

Chapter 5: Abuja Peace Accords, August 1995–July 1997

From Accra to Abuja I, December 1994-August 1995

The Abuja I Peace Accord

Explaining the Abuja I Peace Accord

The Interim Government and Implementation of Abuja I Accord

The Abuja II Peace Accord, 17 August 1996

Implementation of the Abuja II Peace Accord

Why the Abuja II Accord was Successfully Implemented

Chapter 6: Arusha Peace Accord

Background and Causes of the Civil War

Preparations for the Invasion

Government Response to the War

Early Attempts at Peace Making

The Arusha Peace Negotiations

Explaining the Peace Accords

UN Implementation of the Peace Accords

Collapse of the Accords

Chapter 7: The Abidjan Peace Accord

Background and the Warring Parties

Government Response to the War

The NPRC Coup and the War

Early Peace Negotiations

Civil Society Initiatives

The Abidjan Peace Negotiations and Peace Accord

Implementation of the Accord and Why it Failed

Chapter 8: Conakry Peace Accord

Responses to the AFRC Coup

Nigeria Reverses Coup and Fails

The Search for a Mediated Solution

International Support for the Sanctions

ECOWAS Six-Month Peace Plan, 23 October 1997

Implementation of the Accord

Chapter 9: The Lome Peace Accord

Kabbah’s Restoration and the Aftermath

ECOMOG Conduct of the War

Intensification of Fighting and Invasion of Freetown

Creating the ‘Ripe’ Moment

The Lome Negotiations

Main Provisions of the Accord

Collapse of the Peace Accord

British Intervention and Abuja I and II Accords

Chapter 10: Conclusion




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