The Local Economic Impact of Wal-Mart

by Michael J. Hicks

Table of Contents

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments


Section I: The History and Measurement of Wal-Mart


Chapter One – The Chain Store Historically Considered

The War on the Chains 1930–1941

The Big-Box Format

Federal Law and the Growth of Chain Stores


Chapter Two – Measuring Wal-Mart

Assessing Wal-Mart’s Impacts

Economic Theory and Wal-Mart’s Impact

The Income Effect

The Clustering Effect

The Labor Productivity Effect

Measuring the Impact of Wal-Mart

How to Interpret the Statistics in this Book


Chapter Three – The Diffusion of Wal-Mart’s Entrance

Some Economic Analysis of How Wal-Mart Locates Stores

Some New Evidence of Wal-Mart’s Entrance Behavior


Section II: The Commercial Impacts


Chapter Four – The Labor Market Impacts of Wal-Mart

Modern Estimates of Wal-Mart’s Impact

Walk-Mart’s Labor Market Impacts in Indiana

Wal-Mart Distribution Centers

Summary


Chapter Five – The Impact of Wal-Mart on the Market for Goods and Services

Wal-Mart in Iowa: A Rigorous Examination of Stone’s Classic Work

The Structure and Spatial Distribution of the Retail Industry

Why Value Competition?

Wal-Mart’s Effect on Consumer Prices


Chapter Six – The Impact of Wal-Mart on the Aggregate Economy

The Aggregate Labor Market

Wal-Mart and Manufacturing

Wal-Mart’s Profits: A Supplier Comparison

Wal-Mart and Land Value

An Examination of Washington and Economic Stability

Summary


Section III: The Fiscal Impacts of Wal-Mart


Chapter Seven – Wal-Mart and Local Tax Revenues

The Research on Local Taxes and Wal-Mart

The Dynamics of Local Sales Tax Collections: Evidence from Maine


Chapter Eight – Wal-Mart and Local Expenditures

Tax Incentives and Corporate Welfare

The Effectiveness of Tax Incentives to Wal-Mart

Wal-Mart and Subsidies in California


Chapter Nine – Wal-Mart and Antipoverty Programs

A Discussion of Antipoverty Programs

Wal-Mart’s Affect on Antipoverty Programs

Some New Analysis of Wal-Mart and Medicaid Enrollment in Maryland

Summary


Section IV: Social Impacts of Wal-Mart


Chapter Ten – The Poor, the Philanthropist, and the Mom-and-Pop Store

Wal-Mart’s Impact on Poverty and Income Distribution

Wal-Mart’s Impact on Philanthropy

Wal-Mart and Mom-and-Pop Stores

Mom-and-Pop Stores in Iowa


Chapter Eleven – The Social Aspects of Labor Market: Unions and Participation

Wal-Mart’s Impact on U.S. Labor Force Participation

Is Wal-Mart Influencing Union Participation?

Chapter Twelve – Wal-Mart and the Local Environment: Ghostboxes and Sprawl

Greyfields and Ghostboxes

Wal-Mart’s Impact on Urban Sprawl

Summary


Section V: State and Local Public Policy and Wal-Mart


Chapter Thirteen – State and Local Restrictions on Wal-Mart

Local Restrictions on Big-Box Stores

State-Level Restrictions on Wal-Mart

Wal-Mart and the Fair Share Health Care Tax

The Law and Economics of the Wal-Mart Tax


Chapter Fourteen – On Loving and Hating Wal-Mart: A Summary and Policy Recommendations


References

Index