Mussolini’s Cities: Internal Colonialism in Italy, 1930-1939

by Federico Caprotti

Table of Contents

List of Figures


Chapter 1: Fascism and the Pontine Marshes

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Fascism’s unstable ideology

1.2.1 Ideology, elites and illusion

1.3 Fascism, modernity and modernization

1.3.1 Modernity, futurism and fascism

1.3.2 Nationalism and national identity

1.4 Metaphors of war

1.5 Fascism, nature and the city

1.5.1 Nature and the city

1.5.2 New Towns: building spectacle

1.5.3 Lights, camera, action: New Towns through the cinematic eye

1.6 Spectacular visions

Chapter 2: Fascism, the City and Nature

2.1 Fascism, modernity and nature

2.1.1 Pope, Latour and hybrids

2.1.2 Nature in the Pontine Marshes

2.1.3 Domination and colonization

2.2 Fascism and the city

2.2.1 All roads lead to Milan

2.2.2 Fascism in Milan

2.2.3 Urban discontents: fascism against the city

2.2.4 Fascism and the city: rurality, order and evolutionary rhetoric

2.3 Ruralizzazione and strategic urbanism

2.3.1 Ruralizzazione and demography: the missing link between city and nature

2.3.2 Strategic urbanism

2.4 The sterile city

Chapter 3: The Pontine Marshes project: land reclamation and the technological support network

3.1 Introduction

3.1.1 The institutional framework of land reclamation

3.2 Land reclamation and the technological support network

3.2.1 The land reclamation project in the Pontine Marshes

3.3 Urban nature: the technological support network

Chapter 4: Battling Nature: Malaria in the Marshes

4.1 Nature, malaria and technological networks

4.2 Roots in time: transforming a millennial landscape

4.3 Fascism and the mosquito

4.4 Technological networks and the creation of a ‘second nature’ in the marshes

4.4.1 Assessing fascism’s antimalaria project in the Pontine Marshes

4.5 Conclusion

Chapter 5: Mediterranean Utopias: Planning and Architecture in New Towns

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Ruralization, reclamation and demography

5.3 Defining a population problem

5.4 Integral New Towns

5.5 New Town plans

5.5.1 Mediating fascism: New Town architecture and iconography

5.5.2 New Towns and ruralization

5.5.3 Symbols on the urban landscape

5.6 Conclusion: destructive creation

Chapter 6: Hegemony at work: coerced migration to the Pontine Marshes

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Hegemony, demography and coercion

6.3 Internal colonization: the Pontine Marshes

6.4 Coercion: selecting colonists

6.5 Colonising wilderness: population and migration

6.5 Conclusion

Chapter 7: Marketing the Project

7.1 Representation and newsreel propaganda

7.2 The iceberg shape of fascist culture

7.3 Technology and the mastery of nature

7.3.1 Blowing up nature: representing land reclamation

7.3.2 Subjugation of nature: the technological support network

7.3.3 Nature: the modern contradiction

7.4 Representing idyllic nature

7.4.1 Cinematic nature in the Pontine Marshes

7.4.2 Idyllic rural life

7.4.3 Mussolini’s role

7.5 New Towns: enduring contradictions

7.5.1 New Towns, new people

7.5.2 Representations of the urban arena

7.5.3 The masses and Romanitá

7.5.4 Techno-cities

7.6 Hybridisation, cinema and the city

Chapter 8: Scipio Africanus: Film, Internal Colonization and Empire

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Film, internal colonization and Empire

8.3 Internal colonization and the Pontine Marshes

8.4 Beating Hannibal at his own game: film, internal colonization and fascist imperialism

8.5 Scipio the African: the link between Roman imperial reality and fascist imperial ambition

8.6 Conclusion

Chapter 9: Conclusions

9.1 Fascism and nature

9.1.1 Fascism and the city

9.1.2 Newsreels: windows into modern contradictions

9.1.3 Crossing the divide

9.2 Enduring debate

9.2.1 Newsreels, context, and the audience

9.2.2 Interpretative difficulties

9.2.3 Archival research and interviews

9.3 Wider horizons

9.3.1 Impact of fascist cultural politics

9.3.2 Fascism, science and malaria

9.3.3 Society, culture and science: interdisciplinary research

9.4 Closing note




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