Security Forces in African States: Cases and Assessment

by Paul Shemella and Nicholas Tomb

About Paul Shemella

Captain Paul Shemella retired from the Navy at the end of 1996 after a career in Special Operations. During his military service, he planned and executed counter terrorism and counter narcotics operations in Latin America, Europe, and other regions. He earned a master’s degree in national security affairs at the Naval Postgraduate School and attended the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University as a Senior Fellow in National Security. Captain Shemella joined The Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) in 1998. Until 2014, he was the CCMR Program Manager for the ‘Combating Terrorism Fellowship’ program (CTFP), focusing on civil-military responses to terrorism and maritime violence. Captain Shemella was the CCMR program manager for Africa until retiring in 2015 and now serves as Lecturer Emeritus. He is the editor and principal author of two books published by Stanford University Press—Fighting Back: What Governments Can Do About Terrorism and Global Responses to Maritime Violence: Cooperation and Collective Action.

About Nicholas Tomb

Nicholas Tomb is the program manager for the Africa Program at the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) at the US Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). Prior to managing the Africa Program, Mr. Tomb served as the assistant program manager for the Collaborative & Adaptive Security Initiative and the Prevention, Relief & Recovery program, and as a Program Coordinator for the Center for Stabilization & Reconstruction Studies, also at NPS. He is a cofounder and former president of the board of directors of Global Majority, an international, nonprofit organization that promotes nonviolent conflict resolution through education and training, networking, and advocacy. Mr. Tomb holds a master’s degree in international policy studies from the Monterey Institute of International Studies (now the Middlebury Institute of International Studies), which included certificates in conflict resolution and commercial diplomacy.

Thomas Bruneau is a Distinguished Professor of National Security Affairs at the Naval Postgraduate School. He joined the NSA Department in 1987 after having taught in the Department of Political Science at McGill University in Montreal, Canada since 1969. Dr. Bruneau became Chairman of the Department in 1989, and continued in that position until 1995. Dr. Bruneau was the Academic Associate for the curriculum in International Security and Civil-Military Relations from its founding in 1996 until 2002. Between 1998 and 2001 he served as rapporteur of the Defense Policy Board, which provides the Secretary of Defense and his staff with independent and informed advice on questions of national security and defense policy. He became Director of the Center for Civil Military Relations in November 2000, a position he held until December 2004. A native of California, Dr. Bruneau received his MA and PhD from the University of California at Berkeley.

Paul Clarke is an independent security expert, who has worked in collaboration with the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey since 2009. Through CCMR he participates in combating terrorism programs throughout the world, focusing on strategy development, defense institution building and strategic communications. Dr. Clarke is also a senior defense analyst with the RAND Corporation and an adjunct professor at the Air Force Command and Staff College and the Naval War College. Dr. Clarke served as a US Air Force officer from 1987 to 2007. He had two tours at the National Security Council staff at the White House, culminating as Assistant Press Secretary for Foreign Affairs. His last deployment was to the Persian Gulf in 2006. Dr. Clarke holds a PhD in public policy from Auburn University.

Lawrence E. Cline completed a career as an intelligence officer and Middle East Foreign Area Officer in the US Army. His military service featured tours of duty in Egypt, Lebanon, El Salvador, and Somalia, as well as Joint Staff and Special Forces assignments. He holds an MA in international relations from Boston University and a PhD in political science from the SUNY Buffalo. The author of The Lord’s Resistance Army (Praeger, 2013), Dr. Cline has also published a number of articles on international security and internal security affairs in various academic journals. Since 2002 Dr. Cline has been a regular contract instructor for Defense Department counterterrorism programs, and in 2006 he volunteered for recall to active duty and served as an intelligence advisor in Iraq.

Christopher Jasparro is Associate Professor of National Security Affairs and Director of African Studies at the US Naval War College. He specializes in African and Asian transnational security issues, environmental security, cultural property protection, and security cooperation. He teaches and leads seminars and exercises on strategy development, international relations, African security affairs, and security cooperation. His audiences include mid-level and senior US and international military officers, as well as civilian officials. A former Naval Reserve officer, Dr. Jasparro is also a geographer and anthropologist with a PhD from the University of Kentucky. He has conducted field research and engaged in security cooperation activities in various African countries, including Chad.

Florina Cristiana Matei is a lecturer as well as a program manager for Latin America & Intelligence Programs for the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) at the United States Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). She has researched, published, and lectured on a wide range of issues concerning civil-military relations, democratization, strategic communications & government institutions, Security Sector Reform (SSR), intelligence, transnational security threats for CCMR’s programs, and NPS National Security Affairs (NSA) MA courses. Ms. Matei is on the editorial board of several academic journals, including the “International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence”. She is coeditor of The Routledge Handbook of Civil–Military Relations. Ms. Matei earned an MA in international security affairs from the Naval Postgraduate School and is currently a PhD candidate in the Department of War Studies of the King’s College, University of London.

Thomas R. Mockaitis is Professor of History at DePaul University. He holds an MA and a PhD in modern British and Irish history from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Mockaitis is the author of numerous books on terrorism and insurgency, including Osama bin Laden: A Biography. A renowned expert on government responses to irregular security threats, Dr. Mockaitis is coeditor of the journal Small Wars and Insurgencies and a frequent commentator on terrorism issues on various radio and television networks. He has lectured at military educational institutions all over the world, including the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (UK). Dr. Mockaitis has held the Eisenhower Chair at the Royal Military Academy of the Netherlands and has been a regular faculty member of the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR) since 2003.

Colonel Bruce Sweeney is a Military Professor and the FAO Chair in the Department of National Security Affairs at the Naval Postgraduate School, as well as an Army Foreign Area Officer for Africa. Colonel Sweeney’s most recent assignment was as Defense Attaché and Senior Defense Official in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Immediately prior to that assignment he was SDO/DATT in Paris, France. He has extensive overseas experience in almost every region of the world: Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. Colonel Sweeney also has more than five years of command experience and served combat tours in Afghanistan and Iraq. He holds an MBA from Syracuse University and a masters of strategic studies degree from the US Army War College.

Madoua Teko-Folly is an adjunct staff member at the RAND Corporation and an assistant professor at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. He teaches French skills acquisition and cultural, political and socioeconomic related issues in sub-Saharan Africa at the US Army Command and General Staff College in Fort Leavenworth. He served as a consultant for the DDR Unit of the Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery at the United Nations Development Programme, where his work focused primarily on translation and research on the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants. Mr. Teko-Folly also served as a member of the Board of Directors at Global Majority (and is a current member of the International Board of Advisers). Mr. Teko-Folly earned his masters’ degrees in both translation and international policy studies, with a specialization in international negotiations and conflict resolution from the Monterey Institute of International Studies.


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