In many regards, the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the United States and Canada are quite similar. Over the last several decades, a growing number of school-aged children in both countries have become officially diagnosed with the disorder and have been prescribed medication for its treatment. American and Canadian children are generally diagnosed using the same clinical criteria as stipulated in the American Psychiatric Association’s fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-IV; 1994). Beyond similarities in diagnosis, children in both countries are also often treated with the same brands of medication. Additionally, mothers in Canada and the United States are typically exposed to the same types of literature and informational materials about the disorder. Yet, apart from these parallels, there are significant differences between the nations’ respective medical systems which have a major bearing on the affordability of health care and routine access to social services to assist ADHD children and their families.